Problematično ponašanje učenika na času

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Za nastavnike i vaspitače je planiranje nastave posao kojem verovatno posvećuju najviše pažnje u svom radu. To je razumljiv stav, imajući u vidu da je to primaran posao ljudi koji podučavaju druge. Često se dogodi da nešto na času ili aktivnosti ne ide baš po planu i da je potrebno odvojiti određeno vreme za rešavanje iskrslih problema.

Koliko god da se nastavnici trude da učine svoj čas zanimljivim, uvek ima učenika koji ne prate sadržaje koje nastavnik prezentuje i ne učestvuju u isplaniranim aktivnostima nastave.

Jedna od pedagoških situacija se upravo može odnositi na ovakvo ponašanje nekih učenika.

Primer:   Dok nastavnik predaje lekciju jedan učenik se stalno okreće, zagovara i zapitkuje decu oko sebe, često ustaje sa mesta, prilazi drugim učenicima i traži nešto od njih…  

Razlozi zašto se učenik ovako ponaša mogu biti raznovrsni: ne razume gradivo, nema dovoljno sposobnosti, nedovoljno predznanje, trenutno ima problema u porodici, problemi sa vršnjacima, poremećaj pažnje ili ponašanja… U zavisnosti od uzroka određuju se koraci koje će nastavnik i škola preduzeti u rešavanju ovakvog slučaja.

Prvi korak koji nastavnik treba da učini je da neposredno reaguje na ovakvo ponašanje obraćajući se učeniku sa jasno iskazanim zahtevom šta se od njega očekuje i sa jasno istaknutom porukom šta učenik u tom trenutku treba da radi  – dati učeniku primeren zadatak, uzeti ga za svog „pomagača“, promeniti metod rada i slična rešenja kojima se on uključuje u aktivnosti časa.  Nastavnik je u obavezi da tako postupi i zbog druge dece koja su ometana u svom radu i koja, s druge strane, mogu pružiti vršnjačku podršku i pomoć.

Komunikacija koju nastavnik ostvaruje sa ovakvim učenikom je vrlo bitan uslov uspešnosti rešavanja nastale problematične situacije.  Ukoliko je komunikacija manje konstruktivna i uključuje kritikovanje, okrivljivanje, ispitivanje, saslušavanje učenika i slično, verovatno neće doći do poboljšanja ponašanja ili će poboljšanje biti kratkotrajno. Bolji način za rešavanje je pokušaj da se nađe i razume uzrok ovakvog ponašanja, što uglavnom zahteva preduzimanje sledećih koraka: 

  • Saradnja sa stručnom službom škole je jedan od važnih koraka rešavanja i uglavnom neophodna u ovakvim situacijama, jer će pomoći u nalaženju uzroka  problematičnog ponašanja učenika i nalaženju trajnog rešenja. Pedagog i psiholog škole će svojim metodama rada, u saradnji sa odeljenjskim starešinom, prikupiti ključne podatke o učeniku (sposobnosti, interesovanja, motivacija, porodično okruženje, socijalna zrelost učenika i sl. ) i realizovati svoj rad sa učenikom.
  • U zavisnosti od uzroka i jačine problema stručna služba će uspostaviti saradnju sa roditeljima i potražiti pomoć od nadlažnih stručnih instutucija (ako je u pitanju ADHD, poremaćaji ponašanja i sličan neki problem ). U saradnji sa navedenim institucijama škola (timovi) planira i pruža podršku učeniku.
  • U slučaju vaspitne zapuštenosti deteta ili smanjenih sposobnosti nastavnici (timovi škole) će planirati vaspitni rad sa učenikom ili  individualizovane nastavne aktivnosti.
  • Nastavnici, na čijim se časovima učenik ponaša na način koji je opisan u navedenoj pedagoškoj situaciji, najveći efekat će postići ako aktivnosti vaspitnog ili individualizovanog rada,  koje su predložili timovi, razrade u svojim priprema časa, kako bi unapred znali šta konkretno treba da rade u datoj situaciji (npr. promene sadržaja, metoda rada, drugačija nastavna sredstva, zavisno od efekata).

Sve aktivnosti podrške učeniku planiraju se i realizuju u saradnji sa odeljenjskim starešinom i treba da sadrže i vršnjačku pomoć. Roditelji učenika se redovno informišu i uključuju na osnovu planiranih aktivnosti.

Rešavanje ovakvog i sličnih problema dosta zavisi i od toga kako nastavnik vidi dati problem, da li kao „učenik ima problem“ ili „nastavnik ima problem“. Odgovori na ove dileme mogu se potražiti u knjizi Tomasa Gordona „Kako biti uspešan nastavnik“ ( u originalu T.E.T. Teacher Effectiveness Training by Thomas Gordon). 

Mirsada Topalović, psiholog

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